The Romans had one of the most successful empires in history, but they began as a kingdom in the 8th century BC.
The capital was of course, Rome, which is in modern day Italy. They started on the Italian Peninsula and were located along the Meditteranean. After Tarquinn the Proud, the last Roman King, was exiled, Rome became a republic ruled by consuls. In the time of Julius Caesar, it became an empire. Rome conquered much of Europe, Africa, and the middle east. Their great civilization eventually came to an end after it was brought to poverty from attacks by Attila the Hun and eventually, destruction by the Vandals, a tribe of warriors from Germany.
The Romans spoke Latin, a language which many European languages and Slavic languages were influenced by such as English, French, and Romanian. They were educated people for their time, with many philosophers and historians like Cicero and Virgil.
They were one of the most powerful militaries of ancient history. They had steel and iron armor and weapons, something which made them invincible against Germanic tribes.
The Romans followed the Roman religion which was influenced by the ancient Greek religion. They worshipped Jupiter (the Roman equivalent to Zeus), Neptune (Roman equivalent to Poseidon), and Pluto (equivalent to Hades). They also worshipped Mars, the god of war, who was influenced by Ares, Greek god of war.
They did not just follow the Roman religion though, they followed the religions of everyone they conquered. Some Romans were Jewish or Christian.